redlist Peruvian Antiquities at Risk icom museum

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The cultural heritage of Peru includes easily identifiable and unique objects of the great pre-Columbian civilizations, of the times of the Viceroyalty, and of the Republican era.

Despite the protection afforded by national legislation and international instruments, the cultural wealth of Peru is affected by looting and illicit trade. Between 2004 and 2006, illicit exports of over 5,000 cultural and natural objects were intercepted. Nevertheless, the number of clandestine excavations at archaeological sites has increased, as have thefts from churches and museums.

Illicit trade in Peruvian cultural property causes irreparable damage to the country’s heritage and identity, and constitutes a serious loss for the memory of mankind.

THE RED LIST COVERS THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES :
(As of the date of this printing, these images do not represent stolen objects. Rather, they serve to illustrate the categories of objects which are the target of illicit traffic.)

COLONIAL & REPUBLICAN PERIOD

  1. Ethnografic objects
  2. Paintings
  3. Sculpture
  4. Silvercraft
  5. Numismatics
  6. Furniture
  7. Drawings and engravings
  8. Textiles
  9. Documents
  10. Ceramics

PRE-COLUMBIAN PERIOD

  1. Textiles
  2. Metals
  3. Ceramics
  4. Semi-precious stones
  5. Stone
  6. Wood
  7. Fossils
  8. Human remain


Context

Contexte Contexte In order to combat the looting and destruction of Peruvian archaeological sites and ecclesiastical complexes, the International Council of Museums has published this Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk to assist legal authorities, build public awareness, and promote international cooperation in the protection of the cultural heritage of Peru.

This Red List is the fifth in the series published by ICOM to date.* Red Lists describe types and categories of objects protected under national legislation and international agreements that are frequently illegally traded internationally. These Lists are developed by international teams of experts in the archaeology and ethnology of the country or region of origin of the objects. The illustrations show objects that, in the opinion of experts, belong to the categories that are most likely to be looted and traded illicitly. Red Lists are designed to protect cultural heritage at risk by assisting customs and law enforcement officials, dealers in art and antiquities, museums and collectors to identify objects of possible illicit origin. Potential buyers are advised to refrain from any purchase unless the items are accompanied by a certificate of origin and documentation showing provenance. Furthermore, customs, law enforcement officials, and other authorities are encouraged to take precautionary measures with respect to any object of suspect origin while its provenance is investigated in detail.

1. Looted archæological necropolis, Central Coast, Peru.
© Huaca Malena Municipal Museum

2. Plundered Church of Coporaque, Cusco © INC.

* Red List of African Archaeological Cultural Objects at Risk, 2000
Red List of Latin American Cultural Objects at Risk, 2003
Emergency Red List of Iraqi Antiquities at Risk, 2003
Red List of Afghanistan Antiquities at Risk, 2006
© 2007, ICOM, All rights reserved.




Purpose

Cette Liste Rouge s’adresse aux musées, aux marchands d’art, aux collectionneurs ainsi qu’aux fonctionnaires des douanes et à la police, avec pour vocation de leur faciliter l’identification d’objets susceptibles d’avoir été exportés illégalement du Pérou. La liste recense diverses catégories de biens culturels en péril qui font fréquemment l’objet de transactions illicites sur le marché des antiquités.

Ces biens sont protégés par la législation péruvienne, qui en interdit la vente et l’exportation. Les musées, salles des ventes, marchands d’art et collectionneurs sont ainsi exhortés à ne pas en faire l’acquisition sans avoir au préalable vérifié de façon irréfutable leur origine ainsi que les titres de propriété correspondants.

Au vu de la grande diversité des objets, des styles et des périodes, la Liste Rouge des antiquités péruviennes en péril n’est pas exhaustive ; tout objet ancien susceptible de provenir du Pérou devra faire l’objet d’une attention toute particulière ainsi que de mesures de précaution.



With the support of :
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs