Protecting Cultural Objects

NOTES

1 Sunday Times (London), January 8, 1995.

2 Coggins, C., "Illicit Traffic of Pre-Columbian Antiquities," Art Journal, Vol. 29 (1969): 94-98.

3 Ibid.

4 Workshop on Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property, AFRICOM Programme, International Council of Museums, 1993.

5 The Art Newspaper, June 1994.

6 Workshop on Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property.

7 Murphy, J.D., "The Peoples Republic of China and the Illicit Trade in Cultural Property," International Journal of Cultural Property, No. 2, Vol. 3 (1994): 227-242.

8 Save Angkor, UNESCO, Paris, 1993.

9 The Guardian, November 15, 1993.

10 Trace, July 1993.

11 Ibid.

12 The Observer, February 6, 1994.

13 New York Times, April 12, 1994.

14 The Art Newspaper, February 1995.

15 Cannon-Brooks, P. C., "The Movement, Location and Tracing of Cultural Property," in Museum Management and Curatorship, 11 (1992): 3-18.

16 Evening Standard, September 30, 1991.

17 The Art Newspaper, July-September 1992.

18 The Art Newspaper, February 1994.

19 The Art Newspaper, February 1992.

20 The Art Newspaper, January 1995.

21 War Damage and Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Croatia, Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Zagreb, 1992.

22 Ibid.

23 The phrase "cultural cleansing," a product of the fighting in the former Yugoslavia, was coined by the Council of Europe to describe the deliberate destruction of the religious buildings, graveyards, libraries, museums, and other monuments of one culture by the military force of another.

24 Approximately 25,000 museum items have since been returned under UN supervision.

25 Lost Heritage: Antiquities Stolen from Iraq's Regional Museums, fascicle 1 (American Association for Oriental Research in Baghdad, Chicago, 1992) and fascicle 2 (British School for Archaeology in Iraq, London, 1993). Four volumes of material were sent to UNESCO before the issue of these two fascicles, but these contained very few photographs and drawings, and little descriptive material. UNESCO circulated copies to INTERPOL, the International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR), Sotheby's, the Metropolitan Museum (New York), and ICOM. The number of objects missing has been calculated at between 3,500 and 4,000.

26 See Nicholas, L., The Rape of Europa, 1994. A major conference on the "Spoils of War -- The Loss, Reappearance and Recovery of Cultural Property" was held by the Bard Graduate Centre in New York on January 19-21, 1995 in New York (the proceedings are to be published).

27 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (Hague Convention), 1954. See also Prott, L. V., "The Protocol to the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The Hague Convention 1954), 1994," and Clément, E., "Some Recent Practical Experience in the Implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention," in International Journal of Cultural Property,
Vol. 3, No. 1, 1994. For a brief history of the intitiatives and earlier laws behind the Hague Convention see Merryman, J. H., "Two Ways of Thinking About Cultural Property," American Journal of International Law, Vol. 80, No. 4, October 1986.

28 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The Hague Convention), 1954.

29 Ibid.

30 Curbing Illicit Trade in Cultural Property: U.S. Assistance under the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, Washington, D.C.:U.S. Information Agency, 1992.

31 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, 1970, Article 7 (b)(i).

32 In 1994 the CSCE changed its name to Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

33 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Final Act, Helsinki, August 1, 1975.

34 The Charter of Courmayeur.

35 Council Regulation of the E.C. No. 3911/92 of 9 December 1993, OJEC L 395, December 31, 1992.

36 Council Directive of the E.C. 93/7 of 15 March 1993, OJEC L 74, March 27, 1993.

37 Council of Europe, Cultural Heritage Division, CC-PAT (93) 131.

38 O'Keefe, P. J., "Mauritius Scheme for the Protection of Material Cultural Heritage," International Journal of Cultural Property, No. 2, Vol. 3, 1994, 295-300.

39 Aviso, January 1994.

40 For information about the work of UNIDROIT contact The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, via Panisperna 28, 00164 Rome, Italy.

41 Ballestrazzi, M., "Protecting the National Heritage--The Role of the Police with Regard to Insurance Companies," Études et dossiers No. 172, Geneva Association, Geneva, 1992.

42 INTERPOL uses a standard form (in English and French) called the Crigen/Art Form (as revised in 1987).

43 IFAR Reports resulted from the merger of two earlier IFAR publications: Stolen Art Alert and Art Research News. It is published ten times a year and distributed to readers in 15 countries. Address: 46 East 70th Street, New York, NY, 10021, U.S.A. Telephone: +1.212.879.1780. Fax: +1.212.734.4174.

44 Trace is published monthly. Address: 38, New Street, Plymouth, Devon, PL1 2NA, U.K. Telephone: +44.1752.228727. Fax: +44.1752.226911.

45 The Art Loss Register can be contacted at the following addresses: London: 13, Grosvenor Place, London, SW1X 7HH, U.K. Telephone: +44.171.2353393. Fax: +44.171.235.1652; New York: The Art Loss Register at IFAR, 46 East 70th Street, New York, NY, 10021, U.S.A. Telephone: +1.212.879.1780. Fax: +1.212.734.4174.

46 Ballestrazzi, M.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid.

49 Ibid.

50 Hiscox Underwriting, the leading insurers of fine art at Lloyds of London, recommend the taking of photographs and the making of inventories in their guide to safeguarding valuables: Protecting the Finer Things in Life, leaflet, n.d.

51 Charter of Courmayeur.

52 Cracow Symposium on the Cultural Heritage of CSCE Participating States, June 1991.

53 Council of Europe, Cultural Heritage Division, CC-PAT (93) 131.

54 Charter of Courmayeur, Recommendation v.

55 It is interesting to note that in the absence of any formally established network, the Internet is being used by the museum community to circulate information about stolen objects.

56 NARCISSE, RAMA, and VAN EYCK are projects under the aegis and with the financial support of the Commission of the European Community.

57 Chenhall, R. G. and Homulos, P., "Museum Data Standards," Museum, Vol. 314 (1978), 205-212.

58 Ibid.

59 Roberts, D. A. and Light, R. B., "Progress in Documentation," Journal of Documentation, No. 1, 1980.

60 Fink, E., "Observations on the Development of Art Information Standards in North America and Europe," International Conference on Data and Image Processing in Classical Archaeology, Ravello, 3-4 April 1992, Centro Universitario Europeo per i Beni Culturali, 1992.

61 Recent initiatives include the work of CIDOC's Data Model Group; the AFRICOM Progamme's work on Standardization of Collections Inventories in Africa (ICOM); the Art Information Task Force's Categories for the Description of Works of Art (a collaborative project of AHIP and the College Art Association [CAA]); and the Franco-Canadian User's Guide and Terminology for the Description of Religious Objects (the result of collaboration between the Canadian Heritage Information Network and the Comité national de construction et d'art sacré in Canada, and the Inventaire Général and Centre national de la recherche scientifique in France.

62 Art & Architecture Thesaurus, Oxford University Press, 1994. This edition of the AAT is also available in several electronic formats. Other projects are the Union List of Artist Names (G.K. Hall & Co., 1994) and the Thesaurus of Geographic Names (forthcoming).

63 U.S. Delegation Intervention on Cultural Issues (Samuel Wise), CSCE Conference, Budapest, October, 1994.

64 Bold, J., "The Documentation of the Architectural Heritage in Europe," Architectural Heritage: inventory and documentation methods in Europe, Council of Europe, 1993.

65 Ibid.

66 Chenhall, R.G. and Homulos, P.

67 Ibid.

68 Minimum Categories for Museum Objects: Proposed Guidelines for An International Standard, CIDOC, 1994.

69 See Architectural Heritage: inventory and documentation methods in Europe.

70 The Archaeological Sites Working Group was established in 1992. It works closely with the Cultural Heritage Division of the Council of Europe.

71 Photograph Your Valuables, Metropolitan Police (U.K.) Art and Antiques Squad (leaflet, n.d.).

72 The law-enforcement agencies making electronic images of objects are INTERPOL, Lyons; INTERPOL Ottawa (Register of Stolen Art:ROSA); Metropolitan Police (UK), Arts and Antiques Squad article "Clarification and Indentification System: ACIS"; Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Stolen Art File; and Czech Criminal Police/Ministry of Culture joint system.

73 Art Newspaper, February 1995.

74 Prott, L.V., "Protecting Art--The Role of UNESCO," Études et dossiers No. 172, Geneva Association, 1992.

75 Ibid.